Robert Hall secondfs before being beheaded by Abu Sayyaf terrorists.
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KUBARK Manual: A User's Guide to Torture?
The 1950s appear to have been a time when the CIA put a tremendous amount of energy into perfecting the science of torture. The CIA conducted covert experiments, at times on unsuspecting Americans, using LSD in the search of a “truth serum” [source: The New York Times]. It used electrical currents to inflict pain [source: The Boston Globe]. The agency conducted trials investigating the effects of sensory deprivation [source: The Washington Post]. The CIA found that the best methods for extracting information from detainees come not through the infliction of physical pain or torture, but through psychological torture.
Although the brand of torture the CIA devised through more than a decade of trial and error may not inflict physical pain, it can still do some real damage. Historian and expert on the subject of the CIA and torture, Alfred McCoy, writes, “Although seemingly less brutal, no-touch torture leaves deep psychological scars. The victims often need treatment to recover from trauma far more crippling than physical pain”.
There is indeed a torture manual and the CIA literally wrote it. In 1963, the Agency created the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation manual. It was, as Alfred McCoy puts it, the “codification” of everything the CIA had learned from its experiments throughout the 50s. In the KUBARK (the codename for the CIA in the Vietnam War [source: The Washington Post]) manual, methods for breaking detainees are based generally on psychology. Identifying a victim’s sense of self and then stripping it away is part of the first step toward breaking him or her. An introverted or shy detainee might be kept naked and perhaps sexually humiliated, for example. Clothes may also be taken simply to alienate the detainee and make him or her less comfortable.
Creating a sense of unfamiliarity, disorientation and isolation seems to be the hallmarks of psychologically undermining a detainee in the purview of the KUBARK manual. Practices like starvation, keeping inmates in small, windowless cells with unchanging artificial light and forcing inmates to sit or stand in uncomfortable positions (stress positions) for long periods of time have been decried or banned outright by the United States government. Yet these techniques are part of the regimen prescribed by KUBARK. So, too, are using hypnosis and drugs to extract information.
While it doesn’t mention electric shock directly, the manual calls for interrogators to be sure that a potential safe house to be used for torture has access to electricity. As one source told The Baltimore Sun, “The CIA has acknowledged privately and informally in the past that this referred to the application of electric shocks to interrogation suspects” [source: The Baltimore Sun].
Physical pain, however, is ultimately deemed counterproductive by the manual. It’s a much worse experience, the guidebook concludes, for an inmate to fear that pain may be coming than to actually experience it. The old adage that anticipation is worse than the experience appears to also have a basis in the shadowy field of torture.
A newer book, largely a revision of the KUBARK manual, draws the same foundational conclusion -- that psychological torment is paramount to physical abuse. The Human Resource Exploitation Manual -- 1983 was first publicized as the result of an investigative report into the human rights abuses in Honduras.
The patriarchy as political system is defined as rule by benevolent mature men. It has a proven track record in history. And you can't get anything better than it.
So little was known, until recently, about the secretive practice of FGM in a small Muslim community that India is not even on the UN’s list of FGM countries.
India’s Dawoodi Bohra community has been so closeted about its practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) that its recent disclosure shocked even women’s rights activists. It was the highly publicised criminal trial of the FGM of two Bohra girls in Australia, in 2010 and 2011, which shattered the secrecy around this practice. Following investigation and trial, the mother of the girls, the midwife and a Bohra priest in Australia were sentenced to 15 months in prison in 2016.
They are a Shia Muslim sect that migrated to India from Yemen in the 12th century. Their custom of FGM probably originated in Yemen as it’s still a widespread practice there. The Bohra population is only about one million in size, with most settled in western India, and smaller communities in other countries.
Perhaps what shocks most is that this practice is being carried out among the Bohras who are regarded as a progressive, prosperous and well educated community. In fact, the Bohras are proud that their daughters are encouraged to excel in their education and jobs in much the same way as their sons. Most Bohra women are not veiled and choose modern, western attire and lifestyles. Even the burkha of Bohra women, called the Rida, is designed to reflect the community’s view of itself as being innovative and progressive. The Rida leaves the face uncovered, with a flap as option, and instead of the conservative black, it is always in bright colours like deep pinks, reds and greens, with lace and designs.
Nonetheless, recent testimonies and initiatives by Bohra women indicate that FGM is practiced widely. In 2015 a group of women launched ‘Sahiyo’ meaning ‘female friend,’ an online platform that aims to create a safe, women-supported space for Bohra FGM survivors to share their personal stories and to lobby support via a petition for a law to ban FGM in India. As there is no law in India banning FGM, a survey by Sahiyo indicates that the ratio of Bohra girls who have been subjected to FGM could be as high as 80 per cent. The survey also includes Bohra women in the US, UK and Australia. After India, the second highest proportion of women in the survey, 31 percent, are in the US.
The Bohras practice Type-I FGM which involves the partial or complete removal of the clitoris or clitoral hood. The clitoris is referred to as the ‘Haram ki boti’ or ‘sinful piece of flesh’ a recognition of its biological role in women’s orgasms and libido. Even though FGM is called ‘Khatna’ or ‘circumcision,’ which is a ‘coming of age’ social ritual and fervently discussed and debated among women in other communities, what makes it odd among the Bohras is that it appears to be an extremely clandestine procedure. Aarefa Johari, one of the co-founders of Sahiyo says it is never talked about even among girls and women. Testimonies from Bohra women, discussed in agonising details, show the procedure is carried out by impoverished women practitioners, (who probably just need the income) in unhygienic environments, using a razor blade without anaesthesia.
FGM should be relatively easy to eradicate in India. Clearly many Bohra women want this custom abolished. Public testimonies of survivors show extreme angst. Many women have admitted that this has affected their sex lives adversely. Others speak of a much deeper psychological scarring caused by this childhood trauma. As one woman says, ‘The pain was blinding and ravaging… At 33, I feel sick and mentally disturbed because still I remember that day… I can only believe that most of our women feel like me. But consider themselves weak to change. But I ask still, Why? How can we put our children through this horror of FGM?’ Oddly, even though many Bohra women are extremely uncomfortable about the practice and want it to stop, there’s no clear answer as to why or how it continues.
‘People fear ostracism in the community,’ explains Aarefa Johari. She says families who don’t do FGM stay silent about their choice. Dilshad Tavawala, a child protection lawyer in Canada, who believes FGM is a violation of child rights, also speaks about how ‘the backlash [of ostracisation] is considerable and many just won’t do business with you.’
While ostracisation is a powerful tool of control in small, homogenous, rural communities, it is generally non-effective for the urban, middle and upper income, educated strata because the environment offers alternatives. However, what makes the Bohras an exception, is that the community’s structure and function is akin to that of a cult.
The community is tightly controlled by the religious head, the Syedna. Every individual, from birth, is issued a Bohra identity card without which they are not even allowed to enter their mosques. Bohras are required to take an oath of allegiance (misaq) to the Syedna, and must obtain his permission not just for religious issues, but for all personal, familial and professional decisions. Furthermore, they have to pay a compulsory tax to the Syedna for every activity – including birth, death, marriage, business and education. They must acknowledge him as the ‘Jan-O-Mal ka Malik’ (The Lord and Master of Their Life and Properties) and have the inscription `Abde-Syedna' or ‘Slave of the Syedna’ on their wedding cards. The Syedna also asserts himself as the sole trustee of all the mosques and associated properties, trusts and monetary contributions. As Asghar Ali Engineer (1939-2013), one of the fiercest spokesperson of the Bohra reformist movement had said, ‘You can’t literally breathe without their permission.’ The punishments for noncompliance are severe and include not being allowed to pray in the mosque, bury a parent, being forcefully divorced, being forcefully disowned by families, physical harm, and sabotage of businesses and careers. In 1978, the Citizens for Democracy appointed the Nathwani Commission to investigate charges of tyranny against the Syedna. In its 220-page report, the Commission recounted testimonies of victims and said it had found ‘large-scale infringement of civil liberties and human rights.’ Strangely, most Indian media did not report on this. The India Today magazine did but found that witnesses, who had agreed to speak to them, suddenly withdrew. After receiving threats, the magazine was forced to conceal the reporter’s name.
Successive Prime Ministers from Indira Gandhi to Narendra Modi have pandered to the immensely wealthy Syedna, conferring political clout on his totalitarian control on the Bohra community. The Syedna has encouraged the Bohras to embrace Modi despite widespread aversion to his role as chief minister in the 2002 carnage of Muslims in Gujarat for which he has been rewarded by Modi with a Padma Shri, one of India’s highest civilian awards.
In a 2016 public sermon in Bombay, the Syedna instructed the community to continue with FGM. He was responding to the FGM trials and arrests in Australia that year. The Australian authorities had arrested a senior Borah cleric for attempting to thwart investigations and for directing ‘members of the community [in Australia] to give false accounts to the police.’ Fearing a similar crackdown, the Bohra clergy in the US, UK and Europe told their communities to comply with the laws of the land. This was probably just lip-service for it is understood that the Syedna, whose seat is in Bombay, is the ultimate authority for Bohras the world over. In his public sermon the Syedna emphasised that ‘the act has to happen…Stay firm…Even [for] the big sovereign states…we are not prepared to understand.’
It is critical for India to have an anti-FGM law and to enforce its implementation, especially as India’s medical community has failed to address the ethics of FGM and is inclined to exploit it. The danger here is the medical legitimisation of FGM as Shaheeda Kirtane, co-founder of Sahiyo, points out.
A public petition to the Indian government by the advocacy group Speak Out on FGM to outlaw FGM in India has garnered more than 80,000 signatures. The groups founder Masooma Ranalvi, a Bohra FGM survivor, who has also been pushing for the UN to recognize FGM in India, has launched a second petition to the UN . Inclusion in UNFPA and UNICEF’s Joint Programme on the eradication of FGM would give Bohra activists the much needed global support to nudge the Indian government into action.
That armies are mad up of men is something that has to end. Draft women into combat troops. Expose women to the same kind of dangers that men have faced throughout history. Hard labour for female convicts!
It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!
Seven years after our country was shocked by a pedophile scandal at the “Femijet e Tij” Center, (His Children), in the Albanian capital, where three foreigners had abused with homeless minors, another scandal is expected to end up in court soon.
Top Channel has secured the prosecution file against the US citizen, Carl Stephan Kaminski, today 70 years old, who arrived in Albania under the name David Gerard Golderstein. He will be prosecuted in absence for pedophilia with grave consequences against three children during 2003-2006.
One of the abused children, according to the prosecution, is still being cured for serious psychiatric problems, with the diagnosis “refractory schizophrenia” and is unable to communicate.
The minor showed these problems after he was abused. The Prosecution says that Kaminski has entered Albania as a tourist and has mostly lived in Durres. During this time he has abused with children in a house that he had rented.
“He has abused with three minors when he was living in the rented house. The defendant even took naked pictures of the children, promising to delete them”, the Prosecution file says.
The pedophile was discovered recently after a notification that arrived in 2011 by the US authorities.
According to the documents that Top Channel has secured, after abusing with the children he has left during the time when another pedophilia scandal shocked the country, that of the British citizens, David Brown, Dino Kristodulu and Robin Arnold.
But Kaminski was arrested by the German Police near Rosenheim, for traveling with false documents under the name David Gerard Golsderstein, as a Belgian citizen. In this country he was sentenced with one year and four months for falsification of documents.
After finishing the sentence, the 70 year old was handed over to the US justice, where the authorities were looking for him for sexual abuses with minors. When he was 30 years old, he was also sentenced in Massachusetts for pedophilia.
The US prosecutors found pornographic videos of him with the Albanian minors, and have immediately notified the Albanian Prosecution that opened the case.
The Albanian prosecution asked the extradition of Carl Stephan Kamisnki, based on the extradition tractate of 1993.
It's not that it would be terribly difficult to manufacture Sarin nerve gas. The small Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult produced loads of it for attacks in Japan in the early 1990's. It's just that medieval Arabs are too stupid to handle it. They can't even do mustard gas for which the recipes are on the Internet. That saves European cities.
The Association of Anaesthetics of Great Britain and Ireland
10 September 2014 Accidental awareness is one of the most feared complications of general anaesthesia for both patients and anaesthetists. Patients report this failure of general anaesthesia in approximately 1 in every 19,000 cases, according to a report published today. Known as accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA), it occurs when general anaesthesia is intended but the patient remains conscious. This incidence of patient reports of awareness is much lower than previous estimates of awareness, which were as high as 1 in 600.
The findings come from the largest ever study of awareness, the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5), which has been conducted over the last three years by the Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA) and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI). The researchers studied 3 million general anaesthetics from every public hospital in UK and Ireland, and studied more than 300 new reports of awareness.
The extensive study showed that the majority of episodes of awareness are short-lived, occur before surgery starts or after it finishes, and do not always cause concern to patients. Despite this, 51% of episodes led to distress and 41% to longer-term psychological harm. Sensations experienced included tugging, stitching, pain, paralysis and choking. Patients described feelings of dissociation, panic, extreme fear, suffocation and even dying. Longer-term psychological harm often included features of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Sandra described her feelings when, as a 12-year-old, she suffered an episode of AAGA during a routine orthodontic operation:
“Suddenly, I knew something had gone wrong,” said Sandra, “I could hear voices around me, and I realised with horror that I had woken up in the middle of the operation, but couldn’t move a muscle... while they fiddled, I frantically tried to decide whether I was about to die.”
For many years after the operation Sandra described experiencing nightmares in which, “a Dr Who style monster leapt on me and paralysed me.” Sandra experienced the nightmares for more than 15 years until she realised the link: “I suddenly made the connection with feeling paralysed during the operation; after that I was freed of the nightmare and finally liberated from the more stressful aspects of the event.”
Sandra’s account is borne out by the research findings that longer-term adverse effects are closely linked with patients experiencing a sensation of paralysis during their awareness. The use of drugs to stop muscles working (muscle relaxants), often needed for safe surgery, is responsible. Distress at the time of the experience appears to be key in the development of later psychological symptoms.
Professor Jaideep Pandit, Consultant Anaesthetist in Oxford and Project Lead, explained: “NAP5 is patient focussed, dealing as it does entirely with patient reports of AAGA. Risk factors were complex and varied, and included those related to drug type, patient characteristics and organisational variables. We found that patients are at higher risk of experiencing AAGA during caesarean section and cardiothoracic surgery, if they are obese or when there is difficulty managing the airway at the start of anaesthesia. The use of some emergency drugs heightens risk, as does the use of certain anaesthetic techniques. However, the most compelling risk factor is the use of muscle relaxants, which prevent the patient moving. Significantly, the study data also suggest that although brain monitors designed to reduce the risk of awareness have a role with certain types of anaesthetic, the study provides little support for their widespread use.”
Professor Tim Cook, Consultant Anaesthetist in Bath and co-author of the report, commented: “NAP5 has studied outcomes from all anaesthetics in five countries for a full year, making it a uniquely large and broad project. It is reassuring that the reports of awareness (1 in 19,000) in NAP5 are a lot rarer than incidences in previous studies. The project dramatically increases our understanding of anaesthetic awareness and highlights the range and complexity of patient experiences. NAP5, as the biggest ever study of this complication, has been able to define the nature of the problem and those factors that contribute to it more clearly than ever before. As well as adding to the understanding of the condition, we have also recommended changes in practice to minimise the incidence of awareness and, when it occurs, to ensure that it is recognised and managed in such a way as to mitigate longer-term effects on patients.”
The project report includes clear recommendations for changes in clinical practice. Two main recommendations are the introduction of a simple anaesthesia checklist to be performed at the start of every operation, and the introduction of an Awareness Support Pathway - a structured approach to the management of patients reporting awareness. These two interventions are designed to decrease errors causing awareness and to minimise the psychological consequences when it occurs.
It is anticipated that NAP5 will lead to changes in the practice of individual anaesthetists, their training and hospital support systems both nationally and internationally.
The Spanish masturbation guru Fran Sanchez is on the wrong path. Just imagine him handling his sexuality alone on his couch or in the toilet. A picture of pity, he is.
11 October 2016 Northern Ireland BBC News
A police officer who defied the odds and returned to work 18 months after suffering from locked-in syndrome said it was a moment she had dreamed of. Clodagh Dunlop, of Magherafelt, County Londonderry, had a massive stroke in April 2015 which left her unable to move or speak for nearly three months. She said it felt great to get back to day-to-day policing. "It felt like my head had come above water - I took a gasp and was able to breathe again," she said. "It was nice to see colleagues that I knew and talk about what I'm going to do in the future, what job roles I'm going to have. "I do know that I've changed a lot - in that I think I'm a lot more easy-going, a lot more positive and I feel a lot different to maybe how I used to be in the job. "I think I've probably learnt a lot more patience." 'Sense of happiness' She said the emotion of the day did not hit her like she had expected. "Surprisingly it wasn't emotional, I thought it was going to be," Clodagh said. "I had a little tear last night, I was a little bit nervous, but today I didn't feel at all emotional or nervous, just a real sense of happiness." Locked-in syndrome is a condition whereby a patient is both conscious and aware, but completely paralysed and unable to speak. They are usually able to move their eyes and are sometimes able to communicate by blinking. There is no treatment or cure, and it is extremely rare for patients to recover any significant motor functions. Clodagh said she now had one goal left to fulfil. "There was always three things I really wanted to do in my recovery," she said. "I wanted to be able to learn to drive again, I wanted to return to work and I wanted to run again. "I've got two of the three goals now, so I'm going to work very hard, no matter how long it takes." 'Momentous day' Her first day back in the job was hailed as a "momentous day" by her PSNI colleagues. PSNI Foyle said she was a "true inspiration" and had kept her "infectious smile" throughout.
On its Facebook page, the force said she would "now be playing a meaningful role keeping people safe in Derry and Strabane, with a particular focus on drugs".
Clodagh started showing signs of recovery on her birthday in May last year, and walked out of Belfast's Musgrave Park Hospital in November.
She had previously told the BBC what it was like being a "prisoner in your own body".
"I have been in a lot of situations that people would consider frightening - I have jumped out of an plane, been in public order situations as a police officer," she said.
"Just lying in ICU unable to speak is perhaps one of the most terrifying experiences of my life."
Injections of Botox into the penis probably are the most effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. Every artery and vein in the body is surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle. Otherwise there could not be variations in blood pressure. When the muscles around blood vessels contract, this is called vadoconstriction. When the muscles around blood vessels relax, this is called vasodilation.
You probably have to look at imagery of death and dying regularly to stay focused on what really counts in life: great sex before you are gone anyway.
A leading researcher on a ridiculed taxpayer-funded study of duck penises is now using her expertise on orca whales and is going to the "March for Science" to protest budget cuts.
Patricia Brennan, a visiting lecturer at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, worked on the duck penis study that received $384,949 from the National Science Foundation, a grant that was funded through the 2009 stimulus package. The study looked at the differences in the corkscrew-shaped penises of ducks.
A recent interview with New England Public Radio revealed that Brennan is still fascinated by genitalia of various marine animals, this time one from an orca whale that was just delivered from Sea World to her lab.
"Holy cow," Brennan said when the penis first arrived. "Oh wow. Oh my goodness. It's enormous!"
"Although Brennan has spent 20 years studying the sex organs of marine animals, she's never seen anything this big," New England Public Radio reported. "It takes up an entire lab sink."
"So this is the tip right there," Brennan said. "It's not super long, it's just wide."
Brennan is on a new mission to protest budget hawks in Congress and the Trump administration seeking to cut funding for frivolous research.
She is attending the "March for Science" this weekend as a political activist, even though what "she'd really like to do, is get back to the lab and take another look at that killer whale penis."
New England Public Radio said the "stakes for science have never been higher," because Donald Trump is president and has called for budget reductions in the face of a $20 trillion debt.
Trump's budget blueprint would leave the National Institutes of Health with $25.9 billion. The National Science Foundation was not mentioned in the budget blueprint. The agency currently gets roughly $7 billion annually.
Since taxpayers were informed about how much her duck penis study cost, Brennan has become a "sought-after science activist," giving lectures on how scientists can defend their research.
"They were attacking everything," Brennan said of news outlets reporting the cost of her study. "They were attacking the science itself, like, ‘what a waste of money.' They were attacking me, as a person, like, I must be some kind of deviant to be looking at penises.
"Like, who does that?" she asked.
New England Public Radio explained that Brennan is a "basic scientist," meaning she only observes how things work and is not "necessarily applying that knowledge to a particular problem."
There is no real premise to her new research on orca whale penises. "Just the fact that we just don't know what we're going to find is so exciting," she said.
"In order for us to actually be able to solve problems, or make money, or innovate, we actually need to know … about how the world works," Brennan said.
Brennan justified her duck penis study by explaining that it discovered male ducks rape female ducks and that both duck vaginas and penises have evolved in response to "sexual conflict."
"Males have counterclockwise spiraling penises, while females have clockwise spiraling vaginas and blind pockets that prevent full eversion of the male penis," Brennan explained in Slate.
"Male ducks force copulations on females, and males and females are engaged in a genital arms race with surprising consequences," she said, adding, "male competition is a driving force behind these male traits that can be harmful to females."
Brennan says she now tells researchers to "come out swinging" to defend their own "weird-sounding stuff."
The destruction of the Western World will not be achieved by suicide bombers but by arsonists. Suicide bombers are a waste of human resources because the dedication of just one suicide bomber could set hundreds of square kilometers of forests on fire. And the personal risk? A comfortable prison sentence of just a few years.
Since the vaginal wall contains collagen fibres, over time these can stretch and cause the vaginal wall to lose elasticity. This can cause a reduction in enjoyment of sexual intercourse. As well as a normal part of aging, this reduction in elasticity can be increased after child birth. Women may also notice that urinary incontinence occurs. Another consequence of the loss of elasticity in the vagina can be repeat vaginal infections which are debilitating and distressing.
New technology has allowed us to offer a revolutionary technique for tightening the vaginal walls. Using the FemiLift laser to stimulate collagen growth, it will tighten the vaginal wall, thereby restoring a more youthful feel. It also helps reduce urinary incontinence. In addition, feedback has shown that Laser Vaginal Tightening using FemiLift also helps those that suffer from dryness and recurrent vaginal infections.
Is not painful – women who have had the procedure report only a tingle of warmth but no pain.
Has no downtime
Is a very quick procedure, over in minutes
Is proven technology
Women notice results immediately and then more so after a short period of time, often a few days. The number of FemiLift treatments that you will require will be recommended to you for long lasting results. This will be discussed with you at consultation before any FemiLift treatments are carried out.
Feminism is dangerous because it erodes functional hierarchical structures of society. Let feminism have its ways, and you end up with all and everything being a mess.
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